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Health care in prison is a part of the national health care system. General and special outpatient treatment is offered to inmates in the medical department of every prison. If necessary a stationary aid is offered by every prison hospital. Inmates diagnosed with tuberculosis are treated in the special hospital of Tallinn Prison located in Maardu. If the inmate requires aid that the prison medical department is unable to provide, the inmate is assigned to a civil hospital for care. The treatment costs are covered through the Ministry of Justice from the state budget.

All detained persons upon entry undergo an initial health check. This will assess their health in arriving to the prison, determines any diseases (incl. contagious diseases like tuberculosis, hepatitis and HIV) and subsequent treatment. X-ray study will be conducted during the initial health check and hereafter once a year.

HIV / AIDS prevention in prisons is based on The National Health Plan 2009-2020. Voluntary testing and consulting is offered to inmates in every prison. First testing and consulting is conducted upon entry into prison, later a retest is carried out once a year. Consultations are carried out by medical stuff having a special training.

Good work of Estonian Prison Health Care Services is acknowledged by World Health Organization (WHO) with several best practise awards: In 2011 Harku Vangla got the best practise award.

Since 2010 prison’s health departments and hospital are integrated to the Health Information System.